Protection and prevention strategies in sports

Some states' laws identify a specific entity, such as a state agency, to implement training and education provisions, while others are less specific. Researchers have developed computational models designed to calculate the distortion of brain tissue that results from global head kinematics such as the acceleration or velocity associated with head impacts in sports e.

Because a concussion is a diffuse injury rather than a focal one, the primary difference between an impact directly to the head and an impact to the body that accelerates or decelerates the head is the overall magnitude of the acceleration.

For example, the HIT system does not directly measure rotational acceleration or velocity but rather estimates it from linear acceleration using geometrical assumptions. Injury risk curves describe the probability of injury given a specific mechanical input—that is, the risk of concussion given a particular rotational acceleration.

Yet little research has evaluated the effect of concussion education on behavior change in youth. Consideration of these bills has resulted in either codified statute or statewide administrative regulation in 49 states and the District of Columbia.

Making illegal contacts or dangerous stick play e. Such standards were developed initially to prevent skull fracture, and at their core they remain true to that mission today. This could be attributed to risk compensation or simply to the perception by the women players that they needed to strike the Protection and prevention strategies in sports harder to reach the target.

This will help in monitoring injured athletes who participate in multiple sports throughout the year. Many of the coaches surveyed said that they had learned something new about concussions from the materials and that they would continue to use the materials Covassin et al.

The chapter concludes with the committee's findings for this portion of its charge. Such standards were developed initially to prevent skull fracture, and at their core they remain true to that mission today. Risk compensation studies are difficult to conduct and analyze because the effects are typically evaluated over a population rather than via individual differences in behavior before and after institution of a safety change.

Review of the Biomechanics of Concussion In order to determine if helmet design can indeed be protective against concussion, one must first understand what mechanical events lead to concussions and then determine whether the helmet can mitigate those mechanical forces.

To reduce the likelihood of head injuries on playgrounds, it is important to consider the impact-attenuating properties of the surfacing under and around the playground equipment CPSC, There are others who point out that, as highlighted above, linear and rotational acceleration are not always correlated—particularly in the oblique and non-centroidal impacts that occur often on the playing field—and that any helmet standard or rating system that relies solely on reducing linear acceleration will be limited Forero Rueda et al.

The initial attempts proposed quantitative relationships between concussion risk and linear acceleration; for example, Pellman and colleagues used reconstructions of impacts in the NFL, and Rowson and Duma used collegiate data collected with the HIT system.

For example, as discussed at a hearing on concussions and the marketing of sports equipment before the U.

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Baseball Prevention Tips Make sure athletes always wear a batting helmet that fits well and is in good condition. This finding was significant but limited by the small sample size and the fact that 23 of the 28 players had a previous history of concussion, suggesting the possibility of self-selection bias.

Soccer head gear is a primary example. The committee did not identify any studies of the effect of concussion education on changes in coaching behavior, such as the removal of athletes who may have sustained a concussion from play.

Chapter 2 highlighted several animal studies that examined the independent role of linear and rotational acceleration in producing concussions. Improving understanding of the extent, causes, effects, and prevention of sports-related concussions is vitally important for the health and well-being of youth athletes.

Players could chose to wear or not wear headgear, and it is possible that players' perceived risks influenced their decision.

Youth Violence: Prevention Strategies

The key biomechanical principles that define the mechanics of concussion were discussed in detail in Chapter 2 and are only briefly reviewed here.

NOCSAE, to offer one example, has research under way to develop such test protocols, but the limiting factor may be having sufficiently robust, age-dependent concussion tolerance criteria with which to interpret the results of such tests.

Working with a personal trainer or signing up for a class are often safe and enjoyable ways to start a new activity, Cosgarea suggests. Another study found no effect of an ice hockey safety video on behavior change among minor league ice hockey players Cusimano et al.

Mouthguards are mandated in several youth contact sports. Evidence That Helmets Have the Potential to Mitigate Concussion Risk Biomechanical evidence Based on the preceding discussion of the mechanics of concussion, devices that reduce both linear acceleration and rotational acceleration or velocity of the head have the potential to reduce the risk of concussion Benson et al.

Football (American)

If you plan to begin exercising regularly or want to begin a new program, you should meet with your primary care provider first and discuss your options. In order to avoid a false sense of security, it is important that athletes, parents, and coaches be aware of—and that marketers of sports equipment accurately convey—the limitations of protective equipment as it relates to concussions.

Headgear has the potential to change the duration of the impact and lower the peak linear acceleration during heading only if it is at least as compliant as the ball and it does not compress fully. Furthermore, the computational models required to make this translation are hampered by a lack of the pediatric-specific brain and skull data needed to ensure that the model adequately mimics a real child.

One particularly important result was that children viewing the Bike Smart program more often donned a bike helmet correctly McLaughlin and Glang, Playing Surfaces Playgrounds are a major source of injury for children.

Marketing of Protective Equipment There are concerns that the makers of sports protective equipment have taken advantage of growing concussion awareness by making unsubstantiated claims that certain products can reduce concussion risk.

For example, the measurement error associated with the HIT system, which has been used to generate the data for the current STAR system and is being used to collect pediatric-specific data, has recently been reported to be higher than previously published Allison et al.

Some states have passed legislation requiring the use of mouthguards by youth in certain sports. Risk Compensation One unintended consequence of wearing helmets and other protective devices is that the athlete may be emboldened by the increased protection to take additional risks, thus mitigating any benefits of the protective device.NSSF recently hosted a suppressor demonstration at Elite Shooting Sports in Manassas, Virginia to provide news reporters and producers a chance to hear the truth about the hearing protection devices.

Suicide Prevention Toolkit Items. 19 Intervention Strategies in the Prevention of Sports Injuries From Physical Activity Luis Casáis and Miguel Martínez Faculty of Education and Sport Sciences, University of Vigo. Luc Brubaker Professor Kozak English Third Argumentative Draft 20 November My intended audience for this essay, is professional sports league commissioners that think they have done enough to keep the game safe.

McHugh () suggests, in many sports the period of preseason training may be a good opportunity for sports medicine professionals to implement injury prevention strategies. However, the sports medicine professional may have only limited ability to implement strategies without the involvement of other team successfully, to reduce injuries.

The goal for youth violence prevention is simple—to stop youth violence from happening in the first place.

Preventing youth violence requires comprehensive prevention strategies that address factors at each level of the social ecology—individual, relationship, community, and society.

Injury Prevention Resources. To help keep kids in the game for life, STOP (Sports Trauma and Overuse Prevention) Sports Injuries targets the sports that have the highest rates of overuse and trauma injuries.

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Protection and prevention strategies in sports
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